The real Yang and how the concubine pipa?

There must be a fan bingbing, at first, the topic.High-profile “Ma Zhen” highway to although be delete, movie “Yang” remains trough point.There was a period of fan bingbing as Yang play the plot of the pipa, beauty, beauty, but the real way is unlikely to be playing pipa in tang dynasty.

Yang will pipa?
According to zheng in his “Ming emperor miscellany” (a book Yu Dazhong nine years, 855 AD) records: “there the officer Bai Xiuzhen, since the back shu, pipa to offer. The slot in logic 逤 wingceltis, jade, and glory springs, with gold wisp of red into the double phoenix”. The imperial concubine every hug is pipa music in liyuan, music sorrow, float like a cloud.”Tang Zheng Yu (around AD 859) before and after the lifetime of the jin Yang door poem “under the” jade slave pipa Long Xiang dial “sentence since the note:” (Yang), the imperial concubine wonderful pipa, its instruments to smell in the world, there are logic 逤 wingceltis for tank, dragon cedar for dial.”A book from the Ming emperor miscellany “earlier hu Qu Tan Binlu, later song dynasty Yang too really gaiden and archives of the nationwide examination, there are also records of approximate.

Yang will pipa it should undoubtedly righteousness, and may also be quite well.Its special pipa quite, have the west of sichuan’s logic 逤 ebony is lagging, Long Xiang cedar for plectrum (the right hand of board, used for pince tool), there are patterns of the double phoenix decoration, quite rare.

Master of tang dynasty music, Yang often should play the lute and “saburo” phase and the flute.When the nobles are worshipped in Yang door (” competing for the imperial concubine pipa disciple “, “Ming emperor miscellany”), the jade bracelet often teach their tunes, they “are widely have pressed”, ass auction is quite excited.

"Yang" pipa version "posters
Five string lute

Attentive audience may be found, fan bingbing embrace of pipa has five strings, more than four string lute modern one.Tang dynasty pipa do have four or five strings, four string pipa neck bent back, also known as “QuXiang pipa”, and five string pipa as straight, the neck not fold, form a more slender.The name of “pipa” becoming a four string QuXiang pipa points, five string straight a pipa is referred to as the “five string” to show the difference.

Japanese scholar Mr Lin Qian three that four of five strings are pipa with out of central Asia, forming four string pipa development in Asia, especially in Iran;While the five string is completed in India.In the tang dynasty palace “ten music”, both the pipa occupies a very important position.Unfortunately, five strings pipa rapidly disappearing after tang wu, in the early years of the northern song dynasty is only, to the last years has almost vanished, its status completely replaced by four string lute.

Now the city of nara in Japan shoso-in retains the most complete five strings in the tang dynasty pipa physical, as one of the warehouse treasure shoso-in.It connect body to enchase mother-of-pearl, stalwart dial also positive to hawksbill important outline of a man on the camel shock play four string QuXiang pipa pattern, vivid and exquisite.”Yang” is based on a prototype, do a pair of imitation.

Shoso-in hidden mother-of-pearl rosewood five strings in tang dynasty pipa, left and right sides of positive and negative respectively.

 

In the tang dynasty pipa playing, not “half covered face”

So what’s the problem?

The first is the position of fan bingbing, held the pipa.And keep the way of modern pipa (play) held vertically, the tang dynasty pipa widely held position as on the diagonal, horizontal or inclined to embrace.Fan bingbing have to pipa horizontally, like holding the guitar today embrace pipa, is much closer to the tang dynasty pipa’s real state.

That was written by bai juyi of tang dynasty “pipa” in the “pious covered face” is lying?Both cross over, face how to “half covered face”?Don’t forget to “pipa” the pipa female half block the time just sprung, shyly hid behind the pipa, haven’t sat down and began to play.On everybody’s lips widely people: “half covered face”, though now used to describe the pipa playing may be appropriate, but not as the tang dynasty pipa playing style.Shoso-in mother-of-pearl rosewood in tang dynasty five strings pipa on display, aquarium deliberately keep it on the inclined posture, to guide the audience know the pipa playing the way of the tang dynasty.

Nara "62th shoso-in exhibition on display at the national museum of the five string lute, display way closer to the tang dynasty pipa playing real posture.

Why a pipa began to keep horizontal or oblique hold up and down, in the long evolution in the later again into a vertical embrace?This should be it way of occasions and play.Pipa “this from hu”, is often play a musical instrument, on horseback, transverse held posture can lower center of gravity, convenient to play.

Right hand holding the other plectrum plucked, horizontal string can swing the wrist with direction – plectrum strike direction vertical, more convenient.And with the pipa’s way gradually from plectrum dial to flick, nearly vertical posture can make the right play a variety of techniques in the most natural condition.But in the use of special techniques, such as “shake”, the direction of finger need with the wrist fast touch, still make body vertical 欹 bend a little to the left, above the diagonal hold the attitude of the play, so that the vertical finger touch.

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Li Shou mural tomb dancing (local), tang dynasty, unearthed in shaanxi sanyuan county.The second and the third front left musicians with five, four strings are respectively pipa playing, posture is slightly inferior oblique.
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Flaming light Buddha and five-star figure (local), tang dynasty, silk scroll painting, courtesy of the British museum, was discovered in dunhuang.Wearing a crest of Venus (Venus) cross pipa playing.
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Zhaoling YanFei tomb murals (local), tang dynasty, unearthed in shaanxi liquan.Murals in the woman holding a pipa, with oblique position to play.

At with flick, ordinary people with a plectrum

What is, and so on, said along while, plectrum?Pipa is not playing with his fingers before?

Yes, the tang dynasty play pipa is generally not directly touch with finger, and with a plectrum.Plectrum is composed of elongated shank and fan-shaped dial face, the right hand grip used to play the pipa tools.Style in tang dynasty famous pipa virtuoso cao gangchuan stiffness, has been described as “if the wind and rain” – “dial”, is to touch the strings played with a plectrum.Bai juyi “pipa” the poem called “ponder to put the string”, that is after the pipa playing, playing with the plectrum inserted between the string and string.

In the evolution of the pipa’s way after a long only gradually by using plectrum plucked to refer to the instrument, and in the tang dynasty, with the method of the plectrum play occupies the absolute mainstream.”New tang book” aspiration, five strings “old pluck with wood, pei to handle the play god FuChu, emperor taizong yue, later generations for pipa xi.”Taizong period of shule musician pei rune pioneered the pipa precedent with the hand, it is conceivable that the original is dial, and the monotony of playing techniques leap to the liberation of finger play, expression is greatly enriched, the difficulty is not the average person can hold.Therefore pei runes to start playing after hand skills still slow development.

While opening the Ming emperor miscellanea, led by the book of jin Yang poem “has been clearly shows that the imperial concubine not hand to play, use is” Long Xiang dial “, namely Long Xiang cedar do plectrum.
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Japanese shoso-in plectrum in tang dynasty
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Webster’s family tomb murals (local), tang dynasty, now shaanxi history museum, the unearthed in shaanxi xian changan area.Murals in the woman holding a plectrum, was significantly inferior oblique position playing the lute.
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Tang dynasty GongLe figure (local), tang dynasty, silk scroll painting, is the national Palace Museum in Taipei.Woman in the picture holding a plectrum, transverse pipa playing.

In the film and television play, “dripping” pipa, make the person: “Yang”
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New anchor MeiHe, rosamund kwan played small butterfly blue.

Appearance with modern pipa roughly the same, but the neck instead of the phase of product, it is very difficult, even at close hand of fine fine jade beauty according to……The most peculiar place is on the front panel is similar to the violin ponticello…But the pipa has become a weapon here anyway, also do not ask it is a normal pipa.
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See the reflection of the dragon off, “Maggie Q plays Cao Ying s: in The Three Kingdoms.

Although it is about the three countries, but there are still many overhead ingredients, such as the original role played Maggie Q Cao Ying itself is a…And the hand of the pipa is unreliable.Pipa contact battlefield there is indeed, the so-called “luminous wine glass wine, to drink immediately pipa”, pipa and jiangnan ladies hatred is not real at the beginning, but often to see in the glorious.But early pipa as the “four string four column”, no, no way in the next board also appeared so many prescription.Early pipa original two crescent scattered sound hole on the panel, Li Jiao “pipa” the poem described as “half moon string out”, but Maggie Q in the hands of the pipa crescent is more like a water ice stickers, do not know how to enlarge the volume, adjust the sound effect.As for the right hand wearing galeries lafayette nails set of pipa, I can say nothing.
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The hongmen banquet, l as concubine, s: han.

Early pipa should be no taste, jean shaking on the surface of the dial (protect the piano surface from the plectrum scratching damage layer of protection, at the same time also have adornment effect) also pretty weird, jean’s overall modelling also is wrong, this is a period of pantomime horse “pipa”.But the biggest problem is the hongmen banquet that time has not yet been pipa.”Load:” sui book music today QuXiang pipa, shaft head of the harp, and from the western regions, the China of old.”QuXiang pipa almost to the northern and southern dynasties was introduced from the western regions, concubine pipa this scene completely impossible.As to whether vertical hold, there is not plectrum, let’s all laugh it off.
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Production, the god of the dragon king “, AngelaBaby plays silver kyi, s: tang.

In addition to flower head is more like a five string rather than four string QuXiang pipa, AngelaBaby the pipa in her arms is quite like that.In AngelaBaby embrace pipa dance, convenient to “rebound pipa” as a booth, but the AngelaBaby actually nothing more than an inferior oblique embrace, rebound pipa to turn the pipa the whole to the behind (see chart).
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Dunhuang mogao grottoes, rebound pipa JiLeTian

According to the dunhuang studies Mr Zheng ye in the mogao grottoes murals instrument statistics data, belonging to the class plucked instrument pipa appeared in the mogao grottoes, a total of 689, only a few of them are rebound pipa, and both as playing skills and dance moves, didn’t mention in the literature.Besides dunhuang frescoes and other cultural relics in the case of no rebound pipa, so it is more likely to dunhuang limner a creative design, rather than the real performance skills or dance moves.

Oiled paper umbrella – the traditional Chinese arts and crafts

Oiled paper umbrella - the traditional Chinese arts and crafts


Oiled paper umbrella is one of Chinese traditional arts and crafts, as a paper or cloth umbrella originated in China, such as also spread to AsiaJapan、North Korea、Vietnam、、Thailand, etc, and developed with local characteristics in the oiled paper umbrella.As the mainlandhakkaThe migration toTaiwanSettle down, also makes Chinese oiled paper umbrella root development in Taiwan.Oiled paper umbrella as well as in Yang block rain everyday items, items is also indispensable to marry a marriage customs and etiquette, the traditional Chinese wedding, the bride marriedThe carWhen,matchmakerWill be oiled paper umbrella in red covered the bride to ward off evil spirits.Japan’s traditional wedding, the bride will be red oiled paper umbrella is covered.Ryukyu ancient wedding is also useful to the oiled paper umbrella.The old man likes purple umbrella which is the symbol of longevity to use white umbrella funeral procession.JapanTraditional dance will also with oiled paper umbrella as props,The tea ceremonyShow some to use “umbrella”.
A religious celebration, often see the oiled paper umbrella as shelter also hold on god car, this is take its full meaning, as a day of people covered shelter, flooding the symbol of evil ward off evil spirits.The umbrella is more used in the current dailyThe umbrella, oiled paper umbrella as art and more touristssouvenirSelling.

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In 2008, water diversion oiled paper umbrella production process listed in the”State-level non-material cultural heritage list”。 Water diversion oiled paper umbrella factory is China’s only remainingTung oil、lithographicThe traditional craft paper umbrella production enterprise,Water diversion oiled paper umbrellaTraditional production techniques by experts as “living fossil” of the Chinese folk umbrella, oiled paper umbrella industry at present, the only “national levelIntangible cultural heritage”. In 2009, the sixth generation successor water diversion oiled paper umbrellaNever put off till tomorrow what you can fuBy the ministry of culture listed in the national levelIntangible cultural heritageProject representative inheritance, To become China’s only representative from oiled paper umbrella by hand.

Chinese name Oiled paper umbrella

symbol Covering, shelter and drive the evil to ward off evil spirits

The class type Traditional arts and crafts

Land area China, Japan, South Korea, Thailand

Historical evolution

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The origin of
Oiled paper umbrellaThe Chinese nation traditional daily umbrella, use more than 1000 years history.To hand cut bamboo do the umbrella stand to natural waterproof coatingTung oilthelintThe paper umbrella.Oiled paper umbrella is one of the world’s earliest umbrella, pure handmade, materials of all natural, is the crystallization of ancient Chinese wisdom.

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Traditional umbrella word is composed of five character “people”
Frequently usednylonSteel umbrella is a 19 th-century British people according to the principle of China’s opening and closing oiled paper umbrella, use of modern materials, industrial production improvement, while convenient, price cheap, but there is no life of industrial products, traditional oiled paper umbrella the sort of elegant tiancheng beauty, nylon steel umbrella is forever.
Hakka dialect, the “paper” and “the son” homophonic, so the hakka women’s marriage, the woman usually two paper umbrella as dowry, including the meaning of “early birth”;”Umbrella” traditional Chinese “umbrella” word, there are five people in the word is a symbol of fertility and umbrella surface forming a circle after open, to bless the couple happy happy life a complete meaning.Man 16 bar mitzvah, parents will be given a oiled paper umbrella, hope to support the portal.
Taoism ceremony, often see the oiled paper umbrella as shelter also hold on god car, because the oiled paper umbrella have hasten lucky avoids the effect of particle.

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spread
Umbrella has a long history in China, the earliest umbrella byrubanSister invention.
In the spring and autumn dynasty, ancient Chinese famous master carpenters ruban often in fieldwork, if encounter rain, often get wet.Ruban sister want to do something to block rain, she chopped bamboo strips, casts on the thin skins, look like a “pavilion”, collapsed like a stick,

In the 1870 s, British photographers in the suburbs of Beijing
Open such as cover.This is the first umbrella.The eastern han dynastyCAI lunAfter the invention of paper, appeared on the umbrella paper brush tung oil used for waterproof oiled paper umbrella, literati, will also be a sense on the surface of the umbrella before oil painting, with his feelings.Song said the green oiled paper umbrella.Later generations have improved, there isPaper umbrellaOil, umbrella, locates type umbrella, finally formed today’s public goods, use has more than 1000 years.
Oiled paper umbrella in Tang Chaochuan to Japan, Korea, Japan early will oiled paper umbrella is called “tang umbrella”.Oiled paper umbrella spread to other parts of Asia such as Vietnam, Thailand,LaosAnd other places, and combined with the local culture, have their own style and name.The Ming dynasty”Characterized by open content”Said: “in every country oil paste umbrella and fan, with a small cover paper.”, shen kuaThe MengXi in writing”Also mentioned: “with new oil red umbrella, Japan and China.”In some literary works such as”The white snake”Wait to also can see the oiled paper umbrella.Oiled paper umbrella as well as in Yang block rain everyday items, also is a indispensable items, marry marriage customs and etiquette of traditional Chinese wedding, the bride married under the car, the chaperon will use red shading your bride oiled paper umbrella to ward off evil spirits.
The production process
The making process of the traditional oiled paper umbrella is cumbersome, all rely on done by hand.Folk have a saying: seventy-two and a half, piling is corrupt.Broadly speaking, is divided into the following steps:[4]
# 1. Bamboo: bamboo
2. Do the skeleton: cut from her, and make the necessary technology such as water, solar drying processing, then drilling, spelling, threading, tandem umbrella umbrella head made skeleton.
3. The umbrella: stick good paper cutting on the skeleton, trimming, finalize the design, exposure
4. Draw flower: the umbrella surface is painted on, dry
5. Oil: the last on the umbrella face brush tung oil, after being completely dry can be used

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Inheriting good oiled paper umbrella workshop within China, such asC han on oiled paper umbrella、If water hall oiled paper umbrellaEtc., are still in the traditional wine making oiled paper umbrella, 86 procedure manual operation completely, from cutting bamboo to scale design is all manual, don’t use the machine.Material also stick to the traditional, in order to maintain its ancient tiancheng lasting appeal, not to make it into industrialization.Such as the umbrella, must from the mountains to cut down wood.Production tool also has a long history and strict quality control, “four ditch” flat no joint, “opposite” not dew mouth, “guy” and “shim” dew “pig nose”, painted the tung oil evenly.Umbrella surface rendering is very exquisite, done by a professional painter, mainly based on traditional Chinese painting.Also have all kinds of civil subjects, suit different happy occasions, such as wedding hire oiled paper umbrella.
Moral connotation
Oiled paper umbrella because of its long history, classical and nostalgic, connotation is rich, meaning auspicious, deeply love all kinds of people, the oiled paper umbrella Chinese culture mainly displays in:
On behalf of many children, much happiness
Oiled paper with “the son” sound;Umbrella stand for “people” glyph (consists of dozens of people word shape);Umbrella word

Oiled paper umbrella is a classic symbol of love
Traditional is “umbrella”, from the perspective of the traditional Chinese characters are the following four character “people”, since ancient times for meaningFive sub-ka。

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Moral hugely increased
Umbrella for bamboo, bamboo at peace, moral hugely increased.
Happy, unity, peace
Moral umbrella for round, happy happy, unity, peace.
On behalf of conjugal love in one hundred
Since ancient times under the oiled paper umbrella deduce how many classic love: “the white snake,” her husband with her in the west lake broken bridge in umbrella for media, with wind and rain, umbrella, bears historic colors anecdotes,dai《The rain lane”, depicts the “ancient town + + oiled paper umbrella rain lane + beauty” the scene of a beautiful romantic romantic classical oiled paper umbrella has been a symbol of love.
To eliminate the evil to ward off bad luck, and good luck
In Chinese folk legend tung oil can eliminate evil,To ward off bad luckAnd spirits, tung oiled paper umbrella is put in the home, can, of course, the good luck.
Noble and elegant
Oiled paper umbrella itself culture connotation is rich, deep cultural atmosphere.Use the oiled paper umbrella decoration, in the light, classic and romantic and elegant.Hanfu + oiled paper umbrella, but also Chinese classical elegant symbol of beauty.
Worship ancestor spirit first
In many places, useful oiled paper umbrella sacrifice custom of ancestral spirit first.Custom comes from the ancient Chinese emperor huang gai umbrella, said supremacy.With sacrifice to ancestors oiled paper umbrella or dead, according to its status in hell is prominent, not suffering, but reincarnation as soon as possible.

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Classic c han month red oiled paper umbrella
I wish to jinbang title
In ancient China, there is a custom, is to take exams in Beijing or a few, except the books back baggage, will get a red oiled paper umbrella, umbrella “baggage”, also known as “umbrella” blessing, wish the journey safe and examination.A lot of places, family, parents, students to buy a pair of oiled paper umbrella, wish the university entrance exam success.
festival
Red oiled paper umbrella with celebrations, many parts of the country, I hold a birthday party, get married, have children, housewarming, promotion, etc. The practice of giving red oiled paper umbrella remains.
origin
A lot of people at the mention of oiled paper umbrella, it will be called suzhou and hangzhou, there should be oiled paper umbrella like suzhou and hangzhou.This is a one-sided understanding, in fact, oiled paper umbrella is widely used for great river north and south of traditional daily rain gear, is a traditional and general manufacturing.Former oil umbrella factory, like the tailor shop, blacksmith, blossom everywhere, commonplace.Just from five, since the 60 s of the last century, under the impact of modern technology, mechanization of production of metal skeleton cloth umbrella replaced the traditional hand-made oiled paper umbrella.Traditional craft oiled paper umbrella, craft exquisite, multifarious, young people don’t want to working, oiled paper umbrella was all the rage, to the edge disappeared.Previously, all umbrella factory (umbrella shop, workshop) left.

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Hanging umbrella
China is now only jingxian county in anhui, wuyuan road, sichuan luzhou, hangzhou, zhejiang, hunan, and the Taiwan meinung.Has been included in the “intangible” protection of luzhou paper umbrella, hangzhou and wuyuan road paper umbrella umbrella.Luzhou paper umbrella, hangzhou silk umbrella to declare early, be included in the national “intangible”.Then declare a paper umbrella, is the “intangible” at the provincial level, and then in the declaration at the national level.Theory of scale, technology, wuyuan is a paper umbrella.A paper umbrella originated in salty chun road five years (AD 1269), kangxi JiaQu years (1694) the history, on the international products exposition gold medal in 1936, to resume production after production increased year by year, annual sales of more than 30 ten thousand to 2014.In fact many rumors in a network of oiled paper umbrella is wuyuan, sichuan luzhou production and processing of a road, only the agent.
C on han

C han on oiled paper umbrella in the adornment of the line
An imperial city of Beijing in one thousand, since ancient times there is no lack of well-made oiled paper umbrella, but inheriting and has few survived.
C han on oiled paper umbrellaProfessional production of traditional oiled paper umbrella.Oiled paper umbrella umbrella factory is located in the picturesque jiangnan.Beijing chaoyang district DongBa east kiln art district have the umbrella John flower production workshop.Oiled paper umbrella has become a national intangible cultural heritage, to make a few artists have oiled paper umbrella, c han on oiled paper umbrella factory assembled technology exquisite production of oiled paper umbrella folk artists, all of them are oiled paper umbrella production of the family.
C on oiled paper umbrella inheriting traditional han oiled paper umbrella production process, pure manual craft, the umbrella for the traditional cotton paper, umbrella for LanZhu, brush natural tung oil, umbrella and umbrella handle retain the original color material, with the lasting appeal of of primitive simplicity.C han month also constantly innovate, research and development, in umbrella, threading, John flowers on the key technology such as innovation, oiled paper umbrella patterns in addition to the traditional Chinese painting subjects, such as birds and flowers, figures,landscape, stone rubbings etc, also opens upfacebook, hand-painted porcelain series of new subjects, in addition, there are tailored according to customer’s requirements.

C han on oiled paper umbrella umbrella surface (9 a)
C han on oiled paper umbrella is one thousand years of wine making tradition.Process is complex, a longer period.The oiled paper umbrella, from bamboo, bamboo (optional) to soak bamboo (water), steamed bamboo (water), bamboo, dig bamboo, bamboo carving, drilling, spelling, wear line, series, umbrella (the paper stick on the skeleton good cutting, trimming, finalize the design), insolate, John flower (the umbrella surface is painted on, dry), oil umbrella (cooked tung oil) on the umbrella face brush, sun umbrella, after eighty process, 15 days or so to complete production cycle.Therefore, a c han on oiled paper umbrella assembled a variety of unique features:
(1) for the one thousand transfer of wine production, with high collection and inheritance.
(2) the umbrella is a professional painter hand-painted, oiled paper umbrella has appreciation potential.
(3) unique design of blue and white porcelain in baotou, classical Chinese specialty, add a grace to c han on oiled paper umbrella.

C han on oiled paper umbrella umbrella surface pattern (12)
(4) the oiled paper umbrella each materials are carefully selected, elegant, strong, durable, strong resistance to the wind rain, can be repeatedly open and close more than 3000 times.
An oiled paper umbrella set some arts and crafts, is in danger of extinction of painting and calligraphy letters and rich Chinese culture elements and elegant modelling, of primitive simplicity is nostalgia, delicate and beautiful, is an elegant piece of art.C han on oiled paper umbrella, sorption is a kind of yearning, a hanging on the wall or hanging on the roof can rise the good adornment result, let whole space is full of artistic feeling, elegant style.When you have a c han on oiled paper umbrella, you can use her rain for you, let you in the wind and rain is still elegant, temperament is fallen;You can also at the time of the leisure, as a photographic prop, add some nostalgic complex.And you can also

C han on oiled paper umbrella
A, send relatives:, wind and rain.
B, too: a oiled paper umbrella is past lives to be together this life fate, is a constant promise, together through the ups and downs.
C, send friends, comrades, classmates: when you need to give you warm help.
D, send colleagues: thank you for your support always.
E, send leadership: thank you for your cultivation, willing to help you all the way in to.
F, teacher: thank you for your teachings, selfless in busy to take good care of yourself, students in the heart is full of care and gratitude.
Luzhou, sichuan
Luzhou system umbrella industry originated in the late Ming dynasty, its history and luzhou laojiao (a kind of daqu liquor).

The lithographic umbrella surface
The 50 s of the last century, is the “golden age” of luzhou oiled paper umbrella.40 s and 50 s, the beads street near the luzhou residents wharf is “the oiled paper umbrella street”.Luzhou jisheng, there are more than 100 oiled paper umbrella factory, workers, tens of thousands of people, mainly in the now jiangyang kai, taian, shawan, an annual output of 20 million the “umbrella”.
Until the 1970 s, practical and convenient steel gradually replaced the oiled paper umbrella, umbrella of luzhou oiled paper umbrella production started a career change.In the 90 s, few people engaged in the oiled paper umbrella production already.[5]
Umbrella in popular, the waning of luzhou oiled paper umbrella oiled paper umbrella process heavy and complicated, the production cost is high, less profit, and it is difficult to attract young people into the line, only more than 30 old local artisans in 2004 to continue the process, when many people worried that luzhou oiled paper umbrella will be lost.In October 2005, the Shanghai guinness world luzhou oiled paper umbrella again send invitations to jiangyang district government, the local oiled paper umbrella industry began to recover.
After the recovery of oiled paper umbrella industry in yunnan, guizhou and luzhou gulin county, xuyong and other ethnic minority region, as a sacrifice, congratulations, etiquette gift items.Soon and exported to Japan, Singapore, South Korea, Hong Kong, Macao and other regions.
Luzhou oiled paper umbrella production history of more than 400 years, luzhou oiled paper umbrella craft in 2008 was named “national non-material cultural heritage”, by experts as “living fossil” of the Chinese folk umbrella, CCTV has special interview reports.

If a noble and elegant water hall hand-painted oiled paper umbrella
Luzhou oiled paper umbrella has the following characteristics: first, has a long history, is the characteristics of Chinese folk arts and crafts, antique crafts;Second, luzhou oiled paper umbrella to keep its basic made hundreds of years of traditional handicraft production way, claims to be “living fossil” of Chinese umbrella process

Luzhou oiled paper umbrella part umbrella sample (four)
The inheritance of, have certain;Three special, luzhou oiled paper umbrella production technology, production of oiled paper umbrella with rain gear is true, the beautiful with practical function together.Four, durable, fine craftsmanship, variety, designs beautiful, represented by classical oiled paper umbrella of a group of emerging oiled paper umbrella enterprise combing traditional culture and fashion culture, promote the development of luzhou oiled paper umbrella.
Now luzhou local still to traditional wine making oiled paper umbrella, more than 70 procedure manual operation completely, in recent years, luzhou oiled paper umbrella processing enterprises, local workshop or individual more and more, process also found some innovations, many manufacturers have adopted computer color printing umbrella surface, luzhou is becoming important to the local tourism industry.Water diversion oiled paper umbrella factory is China’s only remaining keep tung oil, lithographic traditional craft paper umbrella production enterprises, the oiled paper umbrella traditional production techniques by experts as “living fossil” of the Chinese folk umbrella, oiled paper umbrella industry at present, the only “state-level non-material cultural heritage”, water diversion oiled paper umbrella has seven times on CCTV channel, to participate in international, national performance more than twenty times.Wear the most distinctive with umbrella, with colored silk threads, crossing the two thousand needles, bamboo dance switch, a double bar, is the umbrella of the talents.[6] Oiled paper umbrella “water” in 2013National geographic marksProduct protection.[7] Never put off till tomorrow what you can fuBecome the Chinese state-level non-material cultural heritage oiled paper umbrella making skill only legal tradition.[8]
Production material and process
Now still in the traditional local wine making oiled paper umbrella,

Oiled paper umbrella production all rely on done by hand
More than 70 procedure manual operation completely, from cutting bamboo to depict design is all manual, don’t use the machine.Material also traditions, such as umbrella, must from the mountains to cut down wood.Production tool also has a long history, such as lithographic ink has 450 years of history.Design also is very exquisite, suit different happy occasions.Marriage to hire oiled paper umbrella, pattern is “in extremely good fortune”, “the gigolo knit”, “goddess marriage”, etc.;Is a happy child, new dragon “two rob treasure”, “lotus lantern” and “magpie make mei”, “flower fairy scattering”, etc.;Birthday gift is “birds pay homage to the king” and “not pines”, “sea”, “the pengzu old fairy”, etc.
If Beijing water hall
Originated in Beijing, surviving so farIf water hall oiled paper umbrellaFang has 100 years history,

If the water physical atlas hall oiled paper umbrella parts (20)
Since the qing dynasty, namely enjoys high reputation in the great river north and south.Compared with the ordinary people commonly use oil umbrella, if water hall umbrella process more cumbersome exquisite, using perennial purple umbrella and umbrella rodPhyllostachys aureaManual cutting system and increase the strength of smoke treatment umbrella surface with excellent toughness cover paper, manual besmear repeatedly persimmon oil and after paintingTung oil, to make it waterproof, strong and durable.
The third year of reign of qing emperor guangxu (1886),

If water hall classical double loop oiled paper umbrella
High CongXi (shanxipingyao) at the top of the capital bead open hall oiled paper umbrella if water lane, the store hired man more than 20 people, the south and north painter more than 10 people, excellent workmanship, painters, especially in the handTraditional Chinese realistic paintingSpread the peony oiled paper umbrella and northern song dynasty landscape theme oiled paper umbrella is most outstanding.At that time made the national capital, dignitaries, aristocratic women’s snapping up around that means to exchange notes and become popular.
Since the sixties and seventies of the last century, under the impact of the modern industrial civilization, and the limit of the tedious manual craft, a large number of oiled paper umbrella production enterprises have faded from the daily rain gear in the market, but the oiled paper umbrella elegant tiancheng beauty is nylon steel umbrella can never match.If water hall also into export processing enterprises, to Taiwan, Japan, southeast AsiaOEMThe traditional manual production oiled paper umbrella.
In 2008,The Beijing Olympic GamesAhead of the government’s excavation and support, if the oiled paper umbrella old expand the scale of production, such as water hall system umbrella craft heritage in one hundred, the traditional process, the manual process that a total of more than seventy.The umbrella stick with hand-painted process, in addition to the traditional painting flowers and birds, figures and landscape material, industry innovation, has developed a long handle wrinkling cloud tang dynasty and ancient paper-making inlaid natural leaf oiled paper umbrella, umbrella for Olympic news center decor and gifts, is well received by the market.
If water hall oiled paper umbrella in jiangxi, in Beijing’s daxing district panggezhuang town has production and painting center, product exhibition center in downtown Beijing and sales store, products also sells to Japan, southeast Asia, Europe and the United States and other places.
Zhejiang yuhang
History and evolution of
Zhejiang yuhang paper umbrella production at least more than 230 years history,

Zhejiang yuhang oiled paper umbrella
Qing qianlong 34 years (1769), Dong Wenyuan nine rooms open umbrella shop.Yuhang oiled paper umbrella umbrella, umbrella of civilization, and many other varieties, there are due to the excellent technology, selected materials, make the umbrella long durability, crack and also won’t fall apart and wear, very popular.Once upon a time a lot of tourists way yuhang will knock to buy an umbrella in the middle of the night, relatives and friends as a gift to his hometown.
In 1951, zhejiang yuhang paper umbrella for cooperatives pilot handicraft industry choice, forming a “umbrella production cooperation group”, and at the end of 1952, set up “umbrella manufacturing cooperatives”, become the province’s first handicraft production cooperatives, widely reported by domestic media.As the market of steel skeleton on weather and umbrella, this paper umbrella to be being washed out gradually, yuhang oiled paper umbrella skill also endangered.
Until December 5, 2006, yuhang district party committee, deputy secretary of the generation of warden Jiang Jun bottle in kiln pond residency household will port village, umbrella Lao shifu Liu Youquan told Jiang Jun want to restore yuhang paper umbrella, for local villagers to develop local tourism commodity get rich, to cater to the trend of the rural tourism.Liu Youquan began to be eliminated in oiled paper umbrella is seized with the idea of the traditional process along, soon found a manufacturer of bamboo umbrella stand in fuyang, with hundreds of yuan to buy back 100 bamboo umbrella stand.But he did not grasp processing craft, can only keep the umbrella skeleton, custody for more than thirty years.The urban and rural areas “on December 7th the front-page headline of” finding system umbrella master “yuhang paper umbrella” recovery “and cause concern about the locals.Four return to December 19, room jinquan, Chen Yuexiang, li-hua shen, Sun Shuigen in kiln town pond port village together, discuss recovery yuhang paper umbrella.In January 2007 with dexterous hand, successful recovery production of oiled paper umbrella.They are bottles of kiln pond port village teaching skill, drive the mountain a large bamboo farmers to get rich.Yuhang districtWen Guangxin bureauThe paper umbrella as a key protection folk craftsmanship, should also include yuhang oiled paper umbrella in zhejiang, zhejiang province non-material cultural heritage list.In June the same year, yuhang paper umbrella in hangzhou city, the first in the protection of non-material cultural heritage exhibition on display.
Production material and process
System umbrella by hand skills requirement is high, the system umbrella to experience in their own skills to complete, skill in mentoring, by precept and personal understanding between teacher and pupil, long-term practice to master, apprentice will only be justified for three years.The tools used by the blacksmith forges specially, umbrella with makings is very exquisite, above good peach blossom paper for the umbrella, soaked in persimmon paint, a piece of a paste on the umbrella.Persimmon persimmon green paint is in the oil, the oil persimmon dao paste to extract the persimmon juice, both viscosity and won’t stick my peach blossom paper.With bamboo, wooden umbrella and umbrella handle, good with hair line, umbrella batter on the draw after the good design, coated with tung oil, then lift them indoors, at least after more than 70 procedures, including sawing bamboo, scraping the green, flat head, chop bone, saw groove, knees, rows umbrella, umbrella, paste, umbrella handles, etc.
Hunan changsha
Oiled paper umbrella industry has more than one hundred years history of changsha, hunan, changsha has become of the umbrella shop is the earliest pottery hengtai paper umbrella shop, by TaoJiQiao founded the reign of xianfeng, qing dynasty, after a few years in the near another group TaoHengMao paper umbrella shop.”TaoHengMao umbrella” fine workmanship, keep ancestral process, the choice materials.In the winter the old bamboo tube, fine cloud cover paper production, knot boundary with soil from spinning yarn.And fine strict operation, with silk cotton top cover, the bone with her hair knot rope wear, use the yarn rope clip hair, umbrella with coarse yarn, umbrella are concentrated to the dog days after embryo made with raw tung oil oil three times in a row, good quality, to win credibility.
In 1900, Liang Jingting in changsha city north main street Liang Hongmao umbrella shop who hangs out his shingle after Kant leung open umbrella, old production MingYou, black oiled paper umbrella and special duck shed with a big umbrella, produce the paper umbrella fine workmanship, durable, get “xiangtan clogs, jing Hong Kong oil umbrella” of reputation.Founded in 1921, the feed pan qing brothers feifei paper umbrella, umbrella factory, in addition to traditional painting flowers, and spraying, printing, decals, design also is varied, are exported to Hong Kong, Macao and southeast Asia, and in 1929, the domestic exhibition was awarded a prize of master.Local production of the highest annual output of nearly thirty thousand oiled paper umbrella, until February 1975, jing Hong Kong umbrella club has been revoked, jing Hong Kong oiled paper umbrella production, changsha in other parts of the paper umbrella industry also declined.
Changsha paper umbrella raw material for the cover paper, nanzhu, cotton yarn, rope, tung oil, persimmon, pigment, water ox horn, and wood.

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Hankou of hubei province
Hankou of hubei province Sue hengtai umbrella shop produce of oiled paper umbrella has hundred years of history.In 1864, from hunan, sown by the accumulated 30 string string (1 1000), start trying to investment system umbrella at home, he learned to build umbrella craft improvement, finished product often is always in short supply.In soonfinancingGuandi temple chief bucket lane that Sue hengtai umbrella opened store, employees 12 people, took an apprentice 3, a month can sell 500 to 500, and led to the local market umbrella.In the fire lane road sages opened workshops, mode of production by one division of production the umbrella into groups of five, manufacturing umbrella.Stagnation nine years, Sue hengtai pin umbrella 700 month, year profit nearly 200 series.
Sue hengtai neededmaterials excellent umbrella, umbrella with hunan chaling bamboo umbrella handle with hunan yiyang timber, tung oil in changde, cover paper with shaanxi Yun cover paper, persimmon oil in luotian county of hubei province, available on 8 to 12 years.Is very popular with the locals, jianghan plain was once popular in marriage to buy red and blue Sue hengtai umbrella each one, male and female are red, a blue, in allusion to “guys and dolls, marriage”.Until 1970, Sue hengtai oiled paper umbrella production, the folk craft also locally extinct.
Jiang Xijia road
A road is jiangxi wuyuan is a natural villages.From being up to huizhou, issued rao states from main thoroughfares

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Draw an umbrella to spend
And therefore a way, commonly known as a road.A traditional system umbrella has a long history, according to legend, ChengChun five years (AD 1269) moved song dynasty prime minister ma luan (a road zhang son-in-law) escape in a way, from the city with a handful of oiled paper umbrella.Since then, a passer-by and continuous improvement process, from generation to generation system umbrella.Folk, “Long Cheng” paper umbrella fang Zhang Longcheng most famous, bamboo umbrella keys used his invention.
A paper umbrella, to make smart, with exquisite workmanship, unique style.Myth: kangxi years, wuyuan (belongs) in anhui emblem play.Once, when emperor kangxi traveling incognito jiangnan, with open-air stage theatre, unfortunately it was raining, the front someone umbrellas blocking the back of the line of sight, impetuous urchin with stone struck.Stone is hit the umbrella, rebound, broke the next to an umbrella.Emperor kangxi feel strange, immediately call people ask for it.Results: the intact is made in a way, and been broken that produced it.So a communal sings: “jingdezhen porcelain, umbrella, a road in hangzhou silk don’t pick.”The visible when the house.Also with the anhui merchants footprints around the Yangtze river basin, the best-selling, screen.In the early kangxi JiaQu years (in 1694) has been listed in the “wuyuan county annals” goods belong to the article “.32 years of the republic of China (1943), a covers a total of 36 home, road street system umbrella workshop production umbrella 252000, including more than 176000 export.Displayed on the international products expo in 1936 and won gold prize, in 1936, guangdong XiangEGan four provincial specialty

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Framed umbrella
Exhibition, in 1943 in jiangxi province a&m products exhibition, deeply domestic and foreign customers welcome.
Oiled paper umbrella, a road material is pure, selection of fine wood, high quality silk, silk, leather paper persimmon oil, tung oil, etc.;Main processes: select material – sawing bamboo – plane green – article split – cut bone – saw groove – drill hole saws gourds (axis) umbrella – series hoist (combination) – cooking – sun – with the handle – key installed – round umbrella – framed umbrella – paste umbrella edge – painting – winding (plastic) – wear act the role of the line – tung oil on – set – top.Rain umbrella surface painting and calligraphy TiKuan, beautiful and easy, shine, is the home articles of the durable, also is to have appreciation value of arts and crafts.
In 1990, the national advanced township – in a way township, “work for”, to restore the traditional system umbrella a road.In October 1999, registered as wuyuan county road craft umbrella co., LTD.Traditional system umbrella, the outstanding folk craftsmanship.
Bamboo AnTang
Oiled paper umbrella is an indispensable daily necessities in ancient China

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Master in brush tung oil (brush tung oil is very exquisite process)
.Due to the geographical system umbrella has many areas in China, the ancient huizhou (now jiangxi wuyuan), suzhou and hangzhou, sichuan luzhou, etc.The respective sui generis.
Bamboo AnTang oiled paper umbrella Hu Songgui, founder of the old man is today the jiangxi wuyuan, youth started learning system umbrella process, drain has been gloriously enrolled system umbrella the essence of the process.By chance to reach hangzhou silk umbrella craft, inspired by its, will has been gloriously enrolled oiled paper umbrella is practical, and beautiful hangzhou silk umbrella with ornamental value.Oiled paper umbrella form the specific characteristics of suzhou and hangzhou.
Bamboo AnTang oiled paper umbrella workshop of people insist on traditional craft production traditional ancient umbrella.Select fine bamboo, silk, leather paper, tung oil, the traditional processes: select material – sawing bamboo – plane green – article split – cut bone – saw groove – – saws gourds – drilling string gourd – cooking – sun – with the handle – key installed – round umbrella – framed umbrella – paste umbrella edge – painting – winding – wear act the role ofing line – tung oil on – the – knot top (more than fine process trival, eighty).
Bamboo AnTang adheres to the umbrella for this, in modern technology, traditional craft and manufacturing technology, the combination of Chinese traditional culture on cultural technology combined with modern fashion, the individuality product artistic quality, manufacturability, ornamental, the collection of combined with practicality.Efforts to do a good job in the inheritance of Chinese ancient umbrella and disseminator, will carry forward Chinese ancient umbrella culture.

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fujian

fuzhou

Oiled paper umbrella is one of the “fuzhou sambo” (the other two is bodiless lacquer and horn comb), the former fujian provincein life has an important position, a local slang is called “baggage” umbrella, mean go out people have umbrella in with baggage.Fuzhou oiled paper umbrella can be traced back to the five dynasties and ten states period, the king whose know his army south fujian set up fujian kingdom, from the central plains and the area had brought the umbrella technique to fuzhou.Qing dynasty entered the boom, the umbrella shop in the city during the late qing and early republic of most of more than 300, boycott Japanese goods movement after the xinhai revolution, the traditional fuzhou fuzhou citizens oiled paper umbrella is called “the umbrella”, vigorously promotes the use.
Fuzhou region near the oiled paper umbrella materials shall be selected or local produce of high quality material, the umbrella will use industrial more than five years, strong elasticity, toughness big castle peak old bamboo, an umbrella must be finished by eighty-three procedure is.Kiosks in the street in Yang Chang Li umbrella shop in the most famous, there are “material, the greasy, painted flowers,” the characteristics of bamboo, bamboo must be used as castle peak old paper umbrella surface must be special cotton paper in fujian province.The world expo held in panama in 1915, the judges detection Yang Chang Li produce of “double happiness” paper umbrella, found that it can withstand repeated 1170 times accept can’t afford to support, continuous line, don’t split groove, the 5 to 20 minutes against the wind to blow the umbrella handle don’t fold, umbrella in good condition, for a long time to soak in the boiling water, not to take off the bone, paper is not bad, and won first prize.Progress expo in one hundred in Chicago in 1933 also won prizes.After the founding of the People’s Republic of China and has won many fuzhou city people’s committee awarded the famous brand product.
Of fuzhou system umbrella points with traditional craft umbrella, umbrella, umbrella, umbrella handles, painted flowers, such as five books, art, although the mainstream of which “umbrella”, but only to complete the “umbrella” germ, “oil”, “assembly”, such as process, must be somewhere else to buy umbrella, umbrella, umbrella handle the first class.Umbrella is for the best “after the state to help”, “after the state to help” in the 1950 s was made open green umbrella like a hemp bamboo tube section, invisible cracks, water does not leak.System “handle” is one of the most famous king pavilion in accordance with the dog in the house.Umbrella painter with Cheng Gubao, yong-qin Lin, the most famous Liu Mengqiu, Cheng Gubao delicate calligraphy and painting, yong-qin Lin good at painting of flowers and birds, characters, Liu Mengqiu of “foreign landscape” is very famous also.
The great leap forward, local each umbrella factory into “fuzhou umbrella factory,” soon because of wenzhou imitation silk umbrella competition, the factory will send yong-qin Lin to wenzhou, reformed the fuzhou oiled paper umbrella, and in the local and southeast Asia.After the cultural revolution because cotton umbrella pop, fuzhou oiled paper umbrella is from the real products to handicraft development.In 1985, the factory production of oiled paper umbrella exported to Japan, Europe and southeast Asia, after three years out of Europe and southeast Asia market.And put the paper umbrella raw material and process improvement, every 72 umbrella, umbrella have up big, small together, looks like a snake, so the name “umbrella”.

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In the 1990 s, the communist party leadership love Lin branch fuzhou to Seattle to attend the world flower umbrella art festival, and show a big red umbrella, down the house.Umbrella factory collapsed in 1997, fuzhou fuzhou paper umbrella industry and therefore decline, now only fuzhou Simon’s a workshop to produce paper umbrella, export to Japan.Though some made umbrella craftsman has been transferred to civilian work, still hope to be able to revive system umbrella industry, hope the local government support.
Fujian in the mouth



Fujian nanping YangKou Town oiled paper umbrella, fujian is one of the “three” brand paper umbrellas (the other two in shuikou, fujian and lightening), to start at the beginning of the 20th century, the annual output of more than fifty thousand.Jiangxi southern girl married once proud of have this with marry, in the 1970 s, traditional oiled paper umbrella is gradually replaced by the new cotton umbrella and folding umbrella, by local production practical give priority to the umbrella to the production of small and exquisite, light and beautiful floret umbrella.The umbrella by hand draw all sorts of design, for arts and crafts in fujian hundred flowers awards in the 1980 s.Current export to southeast Asia, Europe and the United States and other places.
Yunnan province xingyang
Tengchong in yunnan province xingyang village system umbrella industry has more than two hundred years history, inheriting the nine generations, also known as “paper son”.City county government was in Banks when touts zheng to male while wandering, Ms. Zhou met west street last name two understand to do master paper umbrella, craft with them and back to hometown, handed down from generation to generation in the past the local production of oiled paper umbrella to supply the entire market in western yunnan.Many hakka people inhabit, local favorite oiled paper umbrella, village head Zheng Chuanguo refers to the village of villagers will have 80% in the past paper umbrella and other products, and is a strand.Now only four families in the village are still making oiled paper umbrella, do people, a total of five people, three of them is over.Now takes a Zheng Guchao craft is best, dainty materials, coating the natural tung oil and persimmon water should be in accordance with the ancient allocate, finished strong and beautiful, can only do one day 9, he made the oiled paper umbrella has won third prize yunnan folk arts.Otherwise Zheng Ying floor do big paper umbrella, because the past businesses like place enlarging paper umbrella in front of the store, can block the rain awning, investment guide, so there is “according to the umbrella shop,” said.They are only in the in the system umbrella.
It made of color paper umbrella fine workmanship, beautiful bright colors, style, good quality, once sell like hot cakes, baoshan, Dali, kunming and other places.From 1950 to 1951, from 57, an annual output of 40000 put the umbrella.60, 1952 households, 90 people, the annual output up to 1952, including big umbrella (10%), 1953, go the way of state-run trade, cooperation, processing, improve the quality of the specification, contour by four to six, the profit about RMB 13000 (including tax).62, 1954, 92 people, a lot of our products are exported to ethnic minority areas, and sold in baoshan, county, and exports to myanmar.From 1958 to 1960, the state of three small umbrella factory production of the paper.After 1965 because cotton umbrella and nylon umbrella replaced oiled paper umbrella as daily necessities, small oil umbrella production, only a small number of large oiled paper umbrella to sell to a roadside stall use.Local paper umbrella industry attention again and again floret umbrella production, as arts and crafts, but not production.On May 21, 2006, zhou, director of the tengchong article production do special people visit to the local paper umbrella production base, seek paper umbrella industrialization development path.The local system umbrella primarily to inheritance folk craft.
Paper umbrella to Muscovite, mica muscovitum, ancient and produce of the bamboo and the local timber for umbrella, umbrella, umbrella surface structure that is bought by world head cover paper blindfolded, coated with 2 oil or tung oil, known as the “green”, the process including cutting umbrella, winding, pasting, persimmon water, umbrella, sun umbrella, painting, umbrella handles, studs of tung oil, rags, around the handle, inside, etc., the average production takes about half a day to an umbrella.
Sanhe ancient town
Sanhe ancient townOiled paper umbrella has 400 years of production history, sanhe town oiled paper umbrella production process in wuhu in 2009 on “the 8th China international tourism commodities fair” won the gold medal to design and manufacture.
Sanhe town umbrella face a variety of design and color, dyeing alone has more than 20 kinds, some blushing like morning glory, some blue and clear, some green, such as water;Or monochrome, or tinted, colorful.In the surface of the beautiful umbrella, and through the brush, spray, painting a variety of craft, depicting ancient landscapes, flowers, landscape pattern, complemented the sanhe town oiled paper umbrella, more show the beauty is generous.
Umbrella surface using sanhe town scenery, so named sanhe town umbrella.Sanhe town oiled paper umbrella with dyeing and printing, stickers, hand-painted, printing and other methods, with the ancient eight sights, small bridge, flowing water, somebody else, has been gloriously enrolled courtyard, flowers, landscape, and traditional Chinese, there are blue, dark green, bright red, bordeaux, peace over 20 varieties, such as pink, orange is beautiful, the characteristics of the material, exquisite, elegant design.
The main purpose

As the rain gear

As a durable Chinese traditional rain gear, oiled paper umbrella use has more than 1000 years history in our country.

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Oiled paper umbrella
Actually, oiled paper umbrella is a very good umbrella, compared with nylon steel umbrella (umbrella), oiled paper umbrella is more durable, more wind.Just in store there is need to pay attention to, such as don’t take it too dry place.In addition, in the northern dry areas, oiled paper umbrella is not suitable for long-term exposure.
Oiled paper umbrella elegant tiancheng beauty, nylon steel umbrella is the industrial products can never match.
Hakka marriage dowry

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Festive red c han month oiled paper umbrella
When old hakka custom wedding including money and dowry, the oiled paper umbrella is also indispensable item him a dowry.”Paper” and “son” homophonic, has the meaning of “early birth”, “umbrella” contains five words, meaning “many”.Oiled paper umbrella umbrella hollow shaft Italy taking integrity, selfless innocence.Round umbrella surface, take its “complete”, symbolic marriage is satisfactory achievement;Also send him umbrella has also said to cover day rain, wind evil intention of ward off evil spirits.Other trousseaux and colored shirt and trousers, dresser, foot barrels, urine bucket, curtain box, wooden box, or trunk, richer people’s dowry is another gold and silver jewelry, where, and bedding blankets and so on.Another woman would have to send some auspicious harmonics of vegetables, such as celery, garlic, chives, leek, with red rope or after article red cloth tied for him.
Use oiled paper umbrella as the custom of dowry in today’s hakka communities in Taiwan and southeast Asia and other places, is still widely used.
The hakka funeral pick up bones
Due to the mainland most of hakka people live in the mountains, the dead buried hill, hakka people can’t afford to bury the dead for the first time made tombstone or Ying, but in the “secondary bone buried (usually three years, five years or longer), then held a grand burial ceremony instead.Decided to bury, send in selected after changing was buried in the cemetery, in August to the lunar calendar the first (or) before and after the severe cold in burial master, incense festivals after the tomb dug open coffin, and under the cover of the oiled paper umbrella collecting bones, bones with camellia oil mop wipe up again.Then the ancestors bones according to “pick up” and “do” and so on steps to grand burial.
Yao’s pledge engagement

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C han on oiled paper umbrella
Oiled paper umbrella in longhui small ShaJiang area of yao nationality is a token of their engagement.If have an affinity for men and women both parties, the groom’s family according to the traditional customs, propose media and to the family, please.Media and spoken for the first time, don’t have to prepare gifts, mainly to ask for her parents agree with you.Engagement on that day, the man of medium male to carry a pair of red oiled paper umbrella, the family had put the umbrella on the shrine of the main, and by a woman to take the umbrella, and if the woman is interested in taking silk cloth and to have pierced good 12 triangular cloth ball on paper umbrella umbrella and umbrella fold, registering the edges of the umbrella color must be more than an inch long.After medium and then with the color must be oiled paper umbrella back to his home, both as a pledge of, said betrothal success.Media and not opened the umbrella to see on the road, if after the divorce of men and women both parties, the ball returned to the woman, the man must be colored silk cloth.
The dai nationality funeral
Live in yunnan dai with myanmar paper (lauguage said “strong sand”) do the oiled paper umbrella, oil is used in the sesame oil, the dai people believe that umbrella can lead to the heaven, therefore is buried essentials.Now in mong block town can buy made from Burma paper umbrella.

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One unique spot copper Yunnan Han Traditional Crafts

One unique spot copper Yunnan Han Traditional Crafts

Spot copper is one of the Han Chinese traditional arts and crafts unique to Yunnan, has on more than 300 years of history. Spot copper production process complex and rigorous, high-grade copper-based alloy raw material, casting molding, Seiko polished, and complex post-treatment process and making it into a “wonderful in a spot, your in deep” red brown surface showing a bizarre flashing, bright mottled, subtle changes in plaque and unique flower, called the metal of the crown.

History of one of the traditional Chinese arts and crafts Name Address Yunnan spot copper type Han 300 years

Spot copper Introduction
Yunnan is China’s unique spot copper metal copper, and copper into Calcined fight plaque cast copper plaque categories. Called “metal gem” fumed hit Yunnan Huize spot copper technology is unique, not only in China but also on a global scale is a rare treasure. Its thick simple, elegant and ornate, shiny artistic effect, and attractive, in fact, high-end furnishings and appreciation of the arts and to share.

One unique spot copper Yunnan Han Traditional Crafts

Spot copper species
Spot copper is divided into “green spot” and “cooked spot” in two [2]. Students spot: that take natural copper ore processing, spot ore was rare, difficult material, very little product, known rarity. Cooked spot: The unique smelting processing casting process, although complex, but worry about raw materials, products more abundant. Spot copper process, regardless of the “green spot” or “cooked spot”, since the advent of the date when, with its beautiful shape, exquisite technique, beautiful people dumping charm.
Yunnan spot copper
Yunnan spot copper handicrafts not only inherit and carry forward in the shape of the traditional characteristics, but also to learn the art of Yunnan and the Central Plains bronze bronze culture of nutrition, combined with modern sculptural techniques and advanced technology, in full flower display plaque characteristics combined with simple and succinct premise decorative patterns, to reach the perfection and unity of art. Now shape including people, animals, flowers, bottles, stoves respect, decorative wall, utensils, and other six categories of spot copper products. Its vigorous simple, elegant and ornate, shiny artistic effect, and attractive, in fact, high-end furnishings to share the fun of the process. Hall in Beijing’s Great Hall of Yunnan spot copper demonstrated its timeless charm as a major art exhibit. Yunnan spot copper handicrafts numerous international awards, and as with foreign heads of state gifts national gifts, peacock bottle, rhino, antique cattle, five types of furnaces, mahamayuri, Buddha and other relevant state departments as permanent treasures collection.
1914 from Yunnan Huize Zhang coppersmith making “spot tripod” won the Silver Award at the Panama International Exposition.
Spot copper – production process
Copper Huize spot copper technology products factory Hui Guo Dehong master said:
“Health plaque production of special attention, it must use 95% of native copper, forged little by little, and then high temperature to burn (refining) spots. Some step program to be repeated several times, a dozen Road (step) we are relying on a hammer a hammer (knocking) play out, to burn a fire, call back. it can be said, a product of dozens of fire to burn, to fight tens of thousands to the final shape of the hammer. ”
According to Master Guo Dehong, burn spot is the most critical one process. Blush charcoal, oak charcoal must spend a good, a lot of the heap in the house, in which the workpiece is buried; then, let the natural Shaolian, ventilation, heating, the length of time to grasp the furnace, there are stringent requirements, no skilled technique and practical experience can not be competent. If the temperature is too low, some of the ingredients of the raw material is difficult to gather, form a crystal plaque free; high temperature melts the workpiece type ruined. Coppersmith past as a living force, a step which many of the key technologies, the master did not teach apprentice family names, as well as “male – female” is said, therefore, failed to spot copper technology promotion.
Since the spot copper need to use high-grade quality natural copper as a raw material, and it is difficult to find a copper content of more than 90% natural raw copper, while the hand-forged copper hit the spot can not be as large-scale production like batch casting, even piggy build such a small spot copper handicrafts, but also need a month’s time, which directly led to scarcity of spot copper finished. Coupled with spot copper is hand-built, each artist has its own “originality”, each piece is unique, and therefore calcined fight Huize spot copper has a very high appreciation and collection value.

Small fry chicken peas corn

Small fry chicken peas corn

Peas Nutritional Analysis: rich in vitamin C and sugar pea pea pods and leaves the body can decompose nitrosamines enzymes that can break down nitrosamines, has the effect of anti-cancer. Peas and vegetables in general vary, contained only pitchfork acid, gibberellin and plant lectins and other substances, has anti-bacterial anti-inflammatory, enhanced metabolic function. Snow peas and bean sprouts contain abundant in dietary fiber, can prevent constipation, have a bowel action. 1. Enhance immune function: peas rich variety of nutrients needed by the body, especially those containing high quality protein, can increase resistance to disease and the body’s ability to heal. 2. Anti-cancer cancer: pea rich in carotene, synthetic human carcinogen after eating can be prevented, thereby reducing the formation of cancer cells, reduce the incidence of human cancer. 3. Tom Lee large intestine: pea rich in crude fiber, can promote bowel movements, will be able to maintain a large smooth, clean play a role in the large intestine. Peas for the crowd: general population can eat peas therapeutic effect: peas, sweet natured, the spleen and stomach; with benefits in the air, Xie Li, adjusting business health, diuresis, eliminate carbuncles stop, poison milk stone solution the effect; attending beriberi, carbuncles, milk barrier, stomach discomfort, vomiting, hiccups, confidants pain, thirst, diarrhea and dysentery and other illnesses. Chicken knowledge introduction: chicken meat tender, delicious taste, because of its lighter taste, and therefore can be used in a variety of dishes. The protein content of many, among the meat, the meat can be said to be one of the highest protein, low-fat high-protein belongs to food. Amino acid content of potassium sulfate is also very rich, so you can make up for lack of cattle and pork. But also because the chicken vitamin A content than other meats, and in quantity, although inferior vegetables or liver, but beef and pork compared to its vitamin A content was much higher. Chicken Nutritional analysis: high chicken protein content, and easily absorbed into use, with enhanced strength, strong role of the body of chicken for the crowd: general population can eat, the elderly, the sick, the infirm should eat. 1. cold and fever, the fire within the partial-wang, phlegm emphasis on people, obesity, suffering from toxic heat Boil people, high blood pressure, high blood lipids, cholecystitis, cholelithiasis of people eat; 2. chicken and warm , to help the fire, hyperactivity and oral erosions, skin boils, swelling, constipation unfit for human consumption; 3. arteriosclerosis, coronary heart disease and high cholesterol patients avoid drinking chicken soup; cold accompanied by headache, fatigue, fever, people eat chicken, chicken soup. Peas and chicken mix, nutrition is very rich, the taste is very delicious.

Ingredients
Peas (100 g) of corn (100 g) chicken (1)
Accessories
Pine nuts (20 g) carrots (50 grams) water fungus (10 grams) of water starch (to taste)
Kitchenware
Non-stick pans, frying pan
classification
Fall recipes hot salty fried ten minutes on Normal Difficulty

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This dish material.

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Pea pod stripping out the backup.

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Carrots cut into Ding spare.

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Peas into the boiling water blanch, remove and place in cold water too cold.

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Carrots fried blanched with boiling water, remove and place in cold water too cold.

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Chicken skinless, boneless diced, then add a little salt and cooking wine pickled spare moment.

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Pot by adding an appropriate amount of salad oil heating.

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Pour marinated chicken and stir fry Ding.

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Scoop chicken can bounce, water can become less.

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First fungus and corn kernels into the pot and stir fry for a while.

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Adding carrots and peas and stir fry for a while.

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Add a little water stir fry.

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Adding the right amount of salt and stir well.

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Adding a little pepper and stir well.

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Adding the right amount of water, starch, starch water, stir to wrap the ingredients can be.

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After addition of pine nuts off the heat, add some chicken (without very delicious)

How to pick peas

How to pick peas

1, look at the color of pea

Peel peas epidermis, the outer layer of fresh meat and peas, like bright green, and dyed old peas, beans, meat color slightly pale, differs from the outer layer of color.

2, the hardness of the squeezed peas

Old pea texture is more rigid than fresh peas some hand crush peas, fresh pea two nibs are not clearly separated, and the two old pea beans meat will naturally separated.

3, listen to the voice of peas

Peas and other legumes like to choose full grain, good color, no insects of yield, when the pea pods with purchase, should see if I can put pods confused rustling, there are loud enough to prove that fresh.

Grapefruit juice ginger tea

Grapefruit juice ginger tea Grapefruit juice ginger tea Grapefruit juice ginger tea

Jiang acquaintance Jumbo really is a chance, when Jiang Jian Bao editors see my food blog invited me to do a free trial of their products and try out recipes report. Because I am the taste of ginger was quite sensitive, the first response was refused. Xiao Bian EVA patiently for me to explain their products, she wanted me to try their products, ginger certainly not people on the concept of sense. I try holding the attitude, we received their products: Jumbo Ginger ginger juice. Upon receipt, I brew with hot water for a small cup, fell in love with this product, it is not very strong ginger, within the public taste absolutely acceptable range. Hot ginger nature can help us fend off the cold, female friends good companion.

Followed by ginger ginger juice Jumbo made a series of recipes, food, cakes, biscuits, in fact, it was quite a wide range of applications, and does not affect other seasoning ingredients subjective taste, which is particularly commendable.

Personally, I like to eat grapefruit, grapefruit is a perfect control. Today I did a grapefruit juice with ginger tea, really like, the taste is different from the honey citron tea, oh, I feel far better than honey citron tea taste it ~

material:

White heart grapefruit meat: 300 g

Grapefruit skin: 70 g

Jiang Jian Bao ginger syrup: 50 g

Sugar: 30 grams

Salt: 1 tsp

practice:

1, after the grapefruit wash, scrub the surface of the salt back and forth, so you can put wax layer grapefruit surface clean out.

2, with a spatula to take down the grapefruit skin, try stripping the thin, white part to cut as little as possible. This part is very bitter taste astringent.

3, grapefruit peel, remove the pulp.

4, grapefruit Peel and cut into filaments, on the salt water soak 2 hours. (Especially if you do not like the bitter taste will try to soak it overnight)

5, marinated grapefruit skin into the water, with medium heat and simmer for about 10 minutes to soften the bitterness off.

6, pulp, processed grapefruit peel, add sugar, a small bowl of water.

7, with a small fire in the cooker will be boiling down to its sticky, naringin golden translucent it becomes. To keep the whole stirring with a wooden spatula to prevent sticking.

8, cook until thick when poured grapefruit dry to cool Jumbo ginger ginger juice, grapefruit juice Stir into ginger tea, in a sealed glass jar, placed in the refrigerator.

Drink it with warm water click.

Tips:

1, it is recommended to use the appliance be boiled, so when the final is not easy to cook Wang Chu splash.

2, the material formulation because people just above it, you can like a good match according to their own, like the taste of grapefruit skin to be put.

3, this can be soaked in water, or directly put on some toast is also very good oh with a spoon.

Grapefruit juice ginger tea

Grapefruit juice ginger tea

April perfect ending women’s classic tale of three stores blossom

April flowers blossomed wonderful season, April is the rose spit aromatic, citrus Yang Hua season, 2016 the end of April, the classic story of women with three stores blossom gratifying achievements to serve the April draw a perfect ending !

April perfect ending women's classic tale of three stores blossom

Women’s classic story Dongguan Dongcheng Haiya stores, Friends of the A Chenzhou International Shopping Plaza store, Ningxia yin chuang ao te lai si  classic story stores in the day of celebration before the coming May Day holiday, the official met with you!

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Champagne and roses in front of the blue, the elegance and romance of the most straightforward interpretation.

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Mirror of the window, the models show a seasonal clothes.

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Former colorful alabaster walls, copper wire rack to show the infinite spring dresses.

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You may also need to match, a handbag, a pair of white pointed shoes, and even a pair of sunglasses women’s classic story …… ask, however, is that all women are more confident, more elegant to show the most perfect themselves.

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Women’s classic story Dongguan Dongcheng Haiya stores, Friends of the A Chenzhou International Shopping Plaza store, Ningxia yin chuang ao te lai si classic story store three stores blossom! In this summer is the season, sincerely welcome every elegant women come facelift.

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History of Ancient Chinese Fashion Development

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Original Clothing
According to the original costumes unearthed bone needles, bone awl and other tools to imagine garment recovery. Before textile technology yet to be invented, it is the main material of animal fur clothing people. Was no rope, wire, animal ligaments may sew clothes. In the cavemen ruins and other ancient tomb, unearthed a large number of layers of decorations, including headdress, necklaces and wrist jewelry and other materials have natural beauty of stone, animal bones and teeth of fish and other sea shells, then wear these ornaments may not only for decoration, and perhaps also contains a memorial to the victory of fishing and hunting.

Shang crest
Shang crest crown worn reel towel, wearing finery aristocratic man (Anyang tomb of Fu Hao Market shares of jade). Wearing clothing cross collar tight sleeves, dressed, covered with a cloud-shaped patterns on the clothing. And gird broadband, belt pressing the lower part of the collar, clothing long knee. Belly hanging a piece of rectangular “cover the knee.” Under shoes. Left lumbar inserted a roll cloud-shaped ornaments, seems to be wearing a kind of sword-class weapon.

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Shang and Zhou aristocratic dress
Shang and Zhou aristocratic dress Zhaixiu textured clothing, shelter knee worn impressions FIG. Fabric color during this period to warm as much, especially yellow and red mainly between brown and brown, but it does not mean it does not exist baskets, green and so cool. Cinnabar red, yellow, only two colors to yellow and made of stone, more vivid than other colors, penetration is also strong, so enduring and has been preserved. Analysis by modern science and technology, dyeing method Shang and Zhou dynasties often stained and painted with, especially red, yellow and other Stern, often after the fabric weaves, and then add paint brush. (According to the unearthed jade dress recover drawing)

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Dongzhou Man Clothing
Men’s Clothing Dongzhou moment collar tight sleeves long dress show in FIG. Zhou Clothing roughly followed the Shang Dynasty service system, only slightly changed. Style clothes slightly looser than the Shang Dynasty. There are two type sizes sleeves, collar Universal collar moment, the style shown in FIG. Clothing of this period have not twist buckle, generally waist belt, the belt is also linked to some jade ornaments. There are two main belt at the time: a kind of silk fabric, called “big band” or “gentry band.” Another belt made of leather, called “leather belt.” This figure is tied for the gentry band.

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Sengoku Hu Fu
Warring States Warring States Period costumes Hu Fu has obvious change, the more important of the popular Hu Fu. The so-called Hu Fu, clothing is actually northwest of ethnic minorities, which are quite different and the Central Plains undress with Bo Han style garments, usually jacket, trousers and leather boots, clothing and body thin narrow, easy activities. Firstly, this garment King Wuling, China is the earliest in the history of clothing a reformer. Knee-length jacket is a major feature of Hu Fu, which was originally used in military clothing, was brought to the public, it has become a common attire.

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Warring States women’s clothing
Warring States women’s garment song dark clothing garment song robes shows images (refer unearthed silk painting restoration drawing). Qu garment dark clothing than any other clothing, in addition shirt lower part is connected to this feature, there is a significant difference, called “continued ren crochet.” “Ren” is the skirt. “Ren continued,” is to take a long skirt. “Crochet” is to describe the style skirts. It has changed the method of tailoring the past more than the next clothing styled panties, the left front and rear skirts stitching, longer skirts and rear panel, forming skirts lengthened triangle behind Raozhi wear, then tying the belt.

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Sengoku hook
Sengoku hooked hooked using the earliest can be traced back to the Spring and Autumn Period, Shandong, Shaanxi, Henan and other places of the Spring and Autumn Period tombs unearthed in kind frequently found, there are historical records. Since ligation hook up more convenient than with the gentry gradually being widely used, it replaced the silk sash. To the Warring States later, the nobility, celebrities are decorated with hook form a trend. Hooked production are becoming increasingly sophisticated. Its role, in addition to the top of the leather belt to the waist, but also can be installed in the waist side to saber, sword, wear cut, wear mirror, Pei Pei India or other decorative items. After the Northern and Southern Dynasties, a new belt, “walk up and down with the” replaces the envelope with the hook, “Xie Xie” do not hook, but with buckles, hook effect will disappear. This chart from left to right: gold and silver wrong hook, hook jade inlay gold, silver hook jade inlay gold, silver wrong spade hook, hook Qian Bao Chi dragon.

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Sengoku warrior costumes

Sengoku samurai clothing Spring and Autumn Period bronze helmet cap (Liaoning unearthed). Helmet During this period, called pocket iron pot, also known as the helmet, the first armored iron pot head or helmet, its shape varied, useful, small pieces decorated a piece compiled into a dome, useful bronze cast into various shapes. In some of the top copper helmet, also tend to have a vertical copper tube to plug antelope and birds tassel ornaments and other decorations when in use. This surface copper helmet, most polished relatively smooth, but inside they are rough rugged, inference, this time wearing a hat samurai helmet, the head should be wrapped turban.

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Han Dynasty long crown
Han Dynasty long crown Daichang Guan, wearing robes officials (Changsha Mawangdui unearthed Fashion wooden figurines). Long crown, previously worn the Han emperor Liu Bang, the preparation of bamboo skin, said Liu crown, as well multiply after more official vestments, also known as fasting crown, Changsha Mawangdui unearthed wooden figurines are wearing clothing that is this crown. Qin and Han Dynasties man costume to gowns as expensive. It has been used as dress robes. They base style, and a large multi-sleeves, cuffs obvious convergence, collar, sleeves are decorated with lace. Robes bare neck collar to the main, most heart-cut style, revealing underwear to wear. This is Officials in Han Dynasty robes ordinary attire, regardless of job title can be civil and military wear. This photo shows Dai Changguan with black edge purple robes and crimson tights leaders.

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Han Dynasty emperor Mianfu
The Han emperor Qin and Han clothing Mianfu diagram, FIG crown crown, red shoe chart (refer to written records and unearthed pottery Jinan, Yinan tomb unearthed stone relief rehabilitation drawing). The pattern in Fig. According to literature and data recovery drawn patterns on the clothing they use brick painting, painting, painting on silk portrait of brick and the same period and the like. Defending champion, it is the ancient imperial court officials participating in ritual ceremony wearing miter. Used vestments worn by the emperor, princes, etc. Top crown crown, there is a circle in front of the rear crown rectangular plate, plate crown hanging around the “crown tassel.”

gd10 Crown tassel depending on quantity and material, the distinction is an important indicator of your * hierarchy. Provisions of the Han Dynasty, the emperor crown crown of twelve tassel (ie twelve rows), as jade. Crown crown color to black-based. Crown crown on both sides, each with a hole for interspersed jade hairpin, hair tied with the knot. On both sides of the hairpin and tie ribbons in submandibular tying. In the ears of the ribbon on a vertical bead also each named “Yun ear.” Not stuffed ears, but hung in the ear, in order to remind those who wear the crown should not listen to gossip. Future generations “Yun ear does not hear,” a phrase that is resulting. As a rule, those who wear defending champion, must wear Mianfu. Mianfu with mysterious coat, vermilion lower part, painted up and down pattern of Chapter. There are also cover the knee, wear ribbon, red shoes and so on. Consisting of a complete set of clothing. This service system began in the Zhou Dynasty, after the Han, Tang, Song, Yuan Zhu generation has been extended to the Qing Dynasty, stretching over two thousand years.

Han Dynasty generals armor
Han Dynasty generals Han Dynasty armor armor show FIG. Qin is the most comprehensive data to date in our history, the most accurate and detailed dynasty, which thanks to the discovery of Terracotta Warriors and Horses. From the current in Shaanxi Lintong I, II, III pit excavated pottery, these terracotta sculptures extremely realistic way, not only the characters look lifelike calm demeanor. Qin Dynasty unearthed warriors into the military figurines, Matrimony figurines, knight figurines, figurines shooter, infantry figurines equestrian figurines accumulation, their armor clothing attire exhibit strict hierarchy. This is the armor shape Western drought period, mainly for the generals. A small scaly body with a piece of woven, fourteen five rows. Below the belt and draped shoulder, still with Sapporo armor, in order to facilitate activities.

gd11Qin and Han women garment song

Qin and Han women garment song dark clothing garment song dark clothing diagram (according to Xi’an, Xuzhou, figurines unearthed clothing restoration drawing) and women’s wear garment curved dark clothing (Xuzhou Tongshan unearthed pottery). Qu Han Dynasty garment dark clothing can be worn not only men, but also women’s wear is the most common form of costumes, the image data has a lot of reflection. The clothing Tongshen Jinzhai, long may drag, it flared hem general, the line does not reveal enough. There are two type width sleeves, cuffs mostly trim. Collar part is quite distinctive, usually cross collar, the collar is very low, so as to expose coat. Such as wearing few clothes, each collar will be exposed to the outside, up to a maximum of three or more, was called “triple clothes.”

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Wei and Jin-sleeved shirt big cage crown
Weijin Man-sleeved shirt big cage crown Wei and Jin Dynasties generally wear big sleeves elegant tunic, until the Southern Dynasties, this tunic is still interested in all sectors of the man, became a fad. Cage crown image and Northern tombs unearthed images come first, but time is earlier than other information, is not visible from the cage crown Hu vulgar, but the first in the Central Plains region after popular, and eventually spread to the north, became the Northern Dynasties one of the major crowns. The picture shows the big wide sleeves shirt and paint a diagram showing sarong crown.

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Wei, Jin and miscellaneous Juchuishaofu
Wei and Jin Dynasties miscellaneous clothes garment hanging Shao Wei and Jin Dynasties, the traditional dark clothing system has not been adopted men, but among women was still wearing. The clothing compared to the Han Dynasty, has a greater difference. Typical, is decorated with “fiber Shao” in the clothing. The so-called “fiber” refers to a fixed portion of the garment hem ornaments. Usually made of silk fabric, which is characterized by wider at the tip such as triangular, and stacked layers. The so-called “Shao”, referring to the skirts extending from around the streamers. Because for too long streamers, walking, flying as a swallow. To the Northern and Southern Dynasties, the costumes have changed, removed the drag of the streamers, while the cusp of “dovetail” lengthened, so that the two into one. Miscellaneous clothes garment hanging Shao diagram shows

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Northern and Southern Mingguang armor
Northern and Southern Dynasties Mingguang armor armor Wei and Jin Dynasties period mainly Yong Kai two sleeves, crotch Mingguang armor and armor. “Mingguang armor,” the source of the term, is said to protect the chest and back and round about. Because most of this round protection to copper and iron and other metal and polished Aurora, resembling a mirror. Wore Mingguang armor on the battlefield due to sun exposure, it will be issued dazzling “Mingguang,” hence the name. Such armor style a lot, and Traditional and Simplified different: some just around the base of each Liang crotch plus two round protection, while others are equipped with shoulder, knee, there are a number of complex heavy Shoulders. A long body mostly to the hip, the waist with a belt line bundle. Figurines left is wearing a pocket iron pot, generals wore Mingguang armor; Below is a diagram showing Mingguang armor worn.

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On the Official uniforms gown
Officials in the Tang Dynasty Tang Dynasty costumes Men costumes to Fu Tau gown as yet, also known as Fu head bundle wrapped in cloth head, Han and Wei is in pieces towel on the basis of the formation of a first service. After the Tang Dynasty, people in Fu head which adds a fixed accessories, called “neutron.” Neutron shape each period is different. In addition to external neutron feet Fu head also has many variations, to the Late Tang Dynasty, has been changed from the original soft foot on each side of a hard feet. Tang Dynasty officials, mainly clothing to narrow Xiupao round neck T-shirt, the color had provisions: Where Mishina officials above all with purple; Wupinyishang, Fei is color; six items, seven items are green; eight items, nine [items cyan. After a slight change. Another gown in applying a cross-gown, was also a major feature of the men’s clothing. This soil is a diagram showing the Tang Dynasty Tee gown and leno Fu head FIG.

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Middle and Late Tang Uighur women’s wear
Middle and Late Tang Uighur women wear dress show in FIG. Comb Uighur bun, wearing Jinfeng Guan, wearing lady back to late Tang and crane mounted variants Kam Po phase pattern cloud head shoes. Uighur minority in Northwest China, which is now the Uighur predecessor. During the Tang Dynasty Kaiyuan, Uighur was once the most powerful northern minority regime. Uighur peoples and the Han people, has close and friendly relations, mutual cultural exchanges and economic dealings never stopped. Uighur ethnic costumes of Han people who bring a greater impact, especially among women and the women in the palace nobility widely popular. The basic characteristics of Uighur man loaded a little like a robe, lapel, narrow sleeves and bodice large, under long drag. Colors in warm tones, is particularly fond of red. Most of the material texture of thick brocade collar, sleeves are lined with relatively broad woven gold brocade lace. Wearing the garment, usually the hair pulled into a bun-shaped vertebral formula, called “Uighur bun.” On another bun wearing a gold crown studded with gems of peach, Shangzhui phoenix. Temples also generally inserted hairpin hairpin, ears and neck all wear many fine jewelry. Foot wear soft Kam Alice head shoes.

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Tang Dynasty Women
With the development of women’s T-shirt kind of the Tang Dynasty is generally divided into jacket, jacket, shirt three. Jacket is a narrow body short Bodysuits clothes or coat. Coat jacket longer than and shorter than gowns, clothing and body more relaxed, but also Bodysuits or cotton. Jacket, long-sleeved jacket with narrow sleeves there are two types. Shirt is sleeveless unlined, the function of sweat, there are buttons down the front and right of junction two kinds. Shirt in spring and autumn days can also be worn on the outside, but short sleeves and wearing a different shirt on the outside, which will develop into back son or half-arms. In the past, it is a kind of skirt shape always rectangular square piece straight skirt, somewhat similar to the kimono dress. Square piece skirt style appear more rigid rigid, so women can not wear them to look pretty. Therefore, the Tang Dynasty, in the form of popular high waist skirt bra, wide swing mopping styles, both revealing curvaceous body structure, but also the performance of a gorgeous chic graceful demeanor. This structure must skirt the main structure of the human body and organic adaptation, it is a circular arc hem pleated skirt oblique, or flared skirt. Incidentally, it is worth mentioning that this will crony beam waist to chest skirt to do also affects North Korean women dress style.

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To the late Tang Dynasty, clothing strengthen the traditional Chinese aesthetic concepts to begin retro, gradual recovery from the main body to show the woman to undress big sleeves that Qin and Han dynasties, such as Sin elegant style, clothing style more and more fat, this style set the type has been affecting the basic concept of the late Chinese women, both with loose hypertrophy, which naturally later became a ritual required objects, soft and natural, intangible desire. Women in middle and late gorgeous atmosphere, is generally similar to the dress, which direct them to wear Bra – Bra originally underwear, in the Tang Dynasty and skirts combine to form a whole, it is not a belt, relaxed and natural. Outside direct put blouses, blouses generally read very beautiful, basically dragging swing to ground, some more than a few meters, for example, some 4 feet wide sleeves, garment drag up to 5 feet, and therefore, the same as in the subsequent European hem length determines the status of women. Blouses are generally wide sleeves, wide sleeves that we often see wide sleeves, wide sleeves Tang Dynasty substantially square-shaped sheet, similar to today’s kimono sleeves.

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Sui and Tang suit of armor
Sui and Tang Dynasty suit of armor suit of armor for combat, mainly armor and leather. In addition to armor and leather armor, armor Tang Dynasty more commonly used, as well as raw silk armor. A raw silk is a kind of armor with raw silk textiles made it relatively lightweight structure, beautiful appearance, but there is no defense capability, it can not be used for combat only as a military commander with the usual ceremonial dress or attire. The picture shows a diagram showing suit of armor worn.

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Northern Liao Dynasty costumes ban
Liao Dynasty Liao Dynasty clothing apparel Ban north to the main robe, men and women alike, and down with the system. Clothing features, usually the left front, round neck, narrow sleeves. New formula pimple on haptics gowns, gowns with tying the chest, then head to the knee. The color is gray robe with gray-green, blue and gray, ocher yellow, black and green and so few, relatively simple patterns. Robe aristocracy, is mostly refined, rust whole body flat pattern. This picture shows the left front narrow Xiupao FIG.

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South Liao Dynasty costumes ban
Ban said South Liao Dynasty Liao Dynasty Han Chinese clothing apparel as “Han Chinese clothing,” also known as “South class apparel.” It Khitan “national service” (or “Northern Class apparel”) is different. This dress can be worn not only people, Han officials also can wear. Walk up and down with a belt there, this is Hu made. There are rooms with ring, various objects used Peigua portable applications, such as bows, arrows, count bag, knife, polishing stones and the like. Is also useful in other nations walk up and down the strip. This picture shows the walk up and down with gold (Liaoning Liao tombs unearthed)

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Yuan aristocracy Casual
The picture shows the Yuan Dynasty nobility Casual Zhaixiu weaving dragon Jin Pao, corrugated cap, cloud shoulder satin shoe show in FIG. Han Yuan aristocracy attack system, in broad woven clothing dragon. According to the “History of the circle Yu Fu Zhi” records, the emperor worship service with the gun, cover the knee, Hosta, leather belt, ribbon ring decorated with a variety of dragons have only one gun had eight dragons, dragons leaders also hem Excluding. Dragon pattern is created by the Han people, it represents the culture of the Chinese nation. After the Late Tang Dynasty, northern minority regime have been established, all without exception, followed this pattern. To the Yuan Dynasty more prominent, in addition to a large number of costumes with dragon than in other household appliances are also widely used. Yuan Mongolian men do wear one kind of bamboo rattan “corrugated hat”, there are a radius of two styles, the top decorated with jewels.

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Yuan woven gold brocade robe
Yuan Yuan aristocratic dress costume with a large number of gold over the past dynasties. Fabric plus gold, as early as the Qin Dynasty had already appeared before. As Han Chinese clothing to get used, some time in the Eastern Han or Eastern Han Dynasty, and mainly used in court. Until the Wei and Jin later, apparel Zhijin atmosphere was popular in the country. Song aristocratic dress with gold in the technology has been developed to eighteen species. Liao, Jin ruled region Zhijin technology has made great progress, especially in the ethnic Uighur region’s most popular, the most beautiful woven cloth. Following the Yuan Liao, Jin, on the fabric with gold more than the previous generation. The picture shows the cross collar woven gold brocade robe to show map.

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Yuan Han women’s clothing

Yuan Han women dress physical map is shown in most of the clothing was removed from the tomb in the suburbs of Wuxi one yuan, including inlaid breasted coat and wide-brimmed without edge short jacket, double-breasted, laid out under the panties, lapel collar lined with purple silk caramel side of the vest, single pieces without pleats, skirts and front clip * median cross stitching, of which there are two sides of the pleated skirt discount. There are two styles of shoes, one to a paper made of silk; another element to the production of silk, towering pointed toe vamp decorated a woven silk bow, the Nasi cotton cheesecloth sole system. There chaps, purse and other items are used in the women. Pictured breasted silk jacket; Pictured breasted silk short jacket; folder under the silk skirt (unearthed).

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Xixia armor and Rong Fu
Jin and Yuan clothing Xixia is a multi-ethnic kingdom established by the party items Qiang, samurai armor is worn body wrapped, helmet, shoulder draped with exactly the same as if two body armor Song A crotch, knee-length or short as A the main explanation behind the armor, after all, than manufacture some of the Central Plains. Xixia also can be used as the official uniform Rongfu, such as the Khitan Liao Dynasty clothes, like, five significant differences between the two. Because of the extent of the feudal society of the Western Xia is not very deep, the relationship between people is more equal, this hierarchy in clothing is not so strong. The picture shows the Western Xia warrior armor and Rong Fu recovery plan.

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The Ming emperor dressed in uniforms
Emperor of the Ming Dynasty emperor dressed in uniforms uniforms show FIG. Uniforms, also known as wing good crown, wearing black yarn discount on towels, dish style of collar, tight sleeves, around the shoulders and embroidered Jin Panlong patterns, jade boots. More use of this service. The Ming emperor dressed in uniforms with yellow silk and clothing, embroidered dragon pattern Zhai and 12 chapters pattern. Dragon motifs from antiquity to the development of the Ming Dynasty, energy, numerous changes. Overall, the pre-Qin dragon, relatively pristine image of rugged, most no limb claw, approximate reptiles. Dragon Qin and Han Dynasty, mostly zoomorphic, limb claw complete, but no scales, often coming up walking like, gives a vague feeling. Ming Dynasty dragon image more perfect, which focused on the local features of various animals, such as cow head, body, such as snake, such as antlers horn, eye, such as shrimp eyes, nose like a lion nose and mouth as the mouth of the donkey, cat ears, such as ear , such as eagle claw, tail, such as fish and so on. In the structure and organization of the pattern it is also very characteristic, in addition to the traditional line Long, Yunlong, as well as dragons, Zhenglong sit Long, Thang Long, Dragon, etc. names. Dragons on this diagram embroidered clothing, there is Thang Long, Dragon two kinds.

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Ming Dynasty Empress sleeve clothing
Queen Ming Dynasty Ming Dynasty women’s clothing apparel, mainly sweaters, jacket, Xiapei back son, Bijia and skirts. The basic style of clothing, mostly from the Tang and Song imitation, generally for the right of junction, restore the Han customs. Where Mingfu worn clothing, there are stringent regulations, generally divided into dresses and uniforms. Queen dressed in uniforms of Dailong Feng Chu Chui crown, wearing red clothes big sleeves, plus Xiapei on clothing, Luo red dress, red Bei child, plus dragon decorated on the first Kraft bun, clothes embroidered with Jinlong Feng weave pattern. This photo shows one of the big coat sleeves to show map.

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Ming Dynasty officials dressed in uniforms
Ming Dynasty officials dressed in uniforms of the picture shows a view and a missed dose product officer his post. Wearing his post, Fu head, wearing plate collar narrow sleeves gowns. “Pan collar” that is flavored with high collar along the circular opening. This is the Ming Dynasty robes main man costumes, courtiers only available Shishu also may wear, but the color differ. Civilians collar clothing worn disc must avoid black, purple, green, yellow willow, turmeric and bright yellow and other colors, others such as blue, ocher and other unrestricted, commonly known as “pan collar variegated clothes.” Twenty-five years after the founding of the Ming Dynasty, the court officials dressed in uniforms made of new regulations, the civil and military officials, regardless of rank, must be decorated in a Fang Buzi robes chest and back, with birds civilian, military attache with the beasts, to show the difference. This is a Ming Dynasty official uniform of the most distinctive attire.

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Man Ming Dynasty robe dajin
Ming Dynasty officials dressed in uniforms five bat holding life pattern dajin robe and wearing a diagram showing the Quartet put down towels, robes worn dajin man. Ming Dynasty men in civilian clothes, the use of gown, its system for the dajin, right Ren, sleeved, knee length down. Aristocratic men casual silk fabrics mainly on painted patterns, also useful for the production of brocade. Patterns gown on, multi-apartment auspicious meaning, and the more common cloud in the middle of the bat, a ball-type embedded “shou” character, meaning “five bat holding life.” This form of pattern especially popular in the seventeenth century, not only in clothing to use on other vessels and architectural decoration are also a lot of reflection. Another, the reality is an abstract decorative flower pattern, usually in lotus, peony flower honeysuckle or as the basic image through distortion, exaggeration, and interspersed with some leaves and buds to form both a dignified and neat, lively and imaginative decorative patterns. This popular clothing patterns at the time. From the Tang Dynasty, Po-phase flowers poured into clothing, a majority of people love the artwork. By the Ming Dynasty, Bao Xiang also became a special flower pattern imperial concubines, and python dragon pattern, like the prohibition against civilian use. But soon lifted prohibitions applied to a variety of clothing. This figure is the former civilian clothes, fabric blue silk, with gold, silver and light blue embroidered dish Longevity pattern.
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Men’s Casual Jin Pao Ming Dynasty
Ming Dynasty, the Ming Dynasty officials dressed in uniforms of men in civilian clothes, the use of gown, its system for the dajin, right Ren, sleeved, knee length down. Aristocratic men casual silk fabrics mainly on painted patterns, also useful for the production of brocade. Patterns gown on, multi-apartment auspicious meaning, and the more common cloud in the middle of the bat, a ball-type embedded “shou” character, meaning “five bats holding tho ‘. This type of pattern in the Ming and Qing especially popular, not only in clothing to use on other vessels and architectural decoration also reflects a lot. by a solid phase pattern for casual decor, but also was a feature of man clothing. another, the reality is an abstract flower decorative patterns, usually in lotus, peony flower honeysuckle or as the basic image through distortion, exaggeration, and interspersed with some leaves and buds to form both a dignified and neat, lively and imaginative motifs. this dress patterns at the time by Welcome from the Tang Dynasty, Po-phase flowers poured into clothing, a majority of people love the artwork. the Ming Dynasty, Bao Xiang also became a special flower pattern imperial concubines, and python dragon pattern, like the prohibition against civilian use but soon lifting prohibitions applied to a variety of clothing. this figure is the pattern woven brocade robe Interlocking Po phase diagram shows, the fabric is woven “treasure-phase flowers” patterns of woven gold brocade.
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Ming Dynasty jacket skirt
Ming Dynasty jacket skirt dress jacket worn impressions FIG. Under the jacket clothing form skirt, Tang Dynasty women’s major clothing, still certain percentage of women in the Ming Dynasty costumes. On the cross collar jacket, long-sleeved jacket. Color of the skirt, pale early yet, although ornamentation, but not obvious. To Chongzhen Dynasty, mostly in white skirt, even embroidery patterns, it is only in a Qunfu bottom, two inches site decorated with a lace, the presser foot. First Qunfu of six so-called “six footing Xiangjiang River water”; after using eight, there are many fine pleated waist, the line frequently as watermarks. To the late Ming dynasty, skirt decoration increasingly stress, Qunfu has increased to ten, waist pleats and more dense, each pleat has a color, the breeze blowing, the color of moonlight, so called “moonlight skirt” . Often a belt hung with ribbons woven “Palace sash”, the specific image and usage Palace sash as shown generally in the middle of playing a few ring structure, and then head to the ground, some still in the middle of a string on a piece of jade, in order to pressure Qunfu, it does not spread to affect the appearance, function and Song Yuhuan ribbon similar.

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Qing Dynasty emperor court dress
Qing Dynasty emperor court dress costumes of the Qing Dynasty emperor has clothes, Kyrgyzstan clothes, uniforms, clothes and other lines. Court dress worn by the emperor and crown, two sub-type summer and winter. The main difference between summer and winter court dress clothes at the edge of the spring and summer with the satin autumn and winter with precious fur of the fringe. Court dress color predominantly yellow to bright yellow as your only ritual day with blue, red, white eve when Asahi. The court dress patterns and 12 chapters mainly dragon patterns. Generally positive front, back and arms are long embroidered each one; waist line curtain embroidered dragon five fold volume (gathers at) before and after the nine dragons embroidered; embroidered skirts Zhenglong two, four lines long; embroidered shawl Long lines two; Zhenglong embroidered sleeve end of each article. XII patterns of sun, moon, stars, mountains, dragons, Hua insects, embroidery, embroidery on clothes in eight chapters; other four algae, fire, were Yi, rice on the clothes, and is equipped with colored moire. The picture shows a diagram showing robes.

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Qing dynasty emperor robe
Qing Dynasty emperor court dress costumes of the Qing Dynasty emperor has clothes, Kyrgyzstan clothes, uniforms, clothes and other lines. Kat clothes belong to the emperor’s robes category than court dress, dresses and other clothes Dagon slightly second-class, usually more wear. Wear robes, Kyrgyzstan must wear clothes crown, served with bundles guitar and hanging beads. Ming-yellow robes also available Jinhuang Xing yellow and other colors. In ancient times called emperors, the Ninth of respect. Nine, five two numbers, usually a symbol of elegance, in the royal buildings, appliances and other life are reflected. Qing emperor’s robes, according to historical records, also embroidered with nine dragons. From the physical point of view, before and after only eight dragons, and written records do not match, missing train. Some people think that there is a one-stop emperor itself. In fact, this dragon objective existence, only to be embroidered skirts inside, usually not easy to see. As a result, each piece is actually Kowloon robes, while from the front or back of the watch alone, are seen Wulong, the Ninth of several coincide exactly. In addition, the hem of the robes, diagonally arranged many curved lines that were feet of water. Feet above the water, there are many water waves rolling waves, the waves on the water, but there stands the rocks treasures, commonly known as “sea Jiang Ya”, which in addition to showing endless stretches of auspicious meaning, there are “unified mountains and rivers” and “eternal peace and prosperity,” the implication. The picture shows a diagram showing robes.

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Qing Dynasty Empress Phoenix robes
Queen costumes of the Qing Dynasty Empress style uniforms, and similar Manchu ladies apparel, T, dajin, collar, sleeves and skirts the edges are decorated with a wide lace, but the pattern is different. This figure shows the patterns of clothing phoenix wear peony. The whole garment in bright blue satin ground embroidered eight phoenix, phoenix middle, interspersed with a few flowers peony. Peony color processing net Mu and sober color changes Koreto, with traditional landscape features. In contrast, the relatively strong phoenix color, red and green contrast very strong, with a typical national style and characteristics of the times. This picture shows the Queen wore gowns phoenix FIG.

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Qing Dynasty pipa lapel jacket
Men’s clothing Qing Dynasty Qing Dynasty clothing mainly robes, coat, jacket, shirt, pants and the like. Paogua is the most important dress. One of these rows gown, waist length however, only cover the elbow sleeve, short-sleeved jacket easy riding, so called “jacket.” The jacket is double-breasted shape, and lack dajin lapel (pipa lapel) of difference. When the multi-breasted jacket dress. Dajin jacket more as uniforms, usually wear robes outside. Lack lapel (Pipa lapel) jacket as more luggage. Mostly short-sleeved jacket, wide sleeves straight. In addition to the color yellow, in general, one more day as a blue or cyan dollar dress. Other dark red, light green, Jiang Zi, dark blue, dark gray and so could be used for uniforms. The picture shows the pipa lapel jacket.

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Late Qing Yun shoulder
Qing Dynasty Mingfu cloud shoulder dresses for women draped over shoulder ornament. Has, for the Snap wishful shape when the Five. Ming Dynasty women as decoration on the dress. Women in Qing also used in the wedding dress. Late Qing Jiangnan women comb hair drooping, greasy hair is shoulder afraid clothes soiled, it is more in the shoulder Dai Yun shoulder. Aristocratic women used cloud shoulder, beautifully produced, some tailored to the lotus-shaped, or shaped knot line Ying Luo, hanging around there to be ranked. Cloud shoulder Empress used, some large, round pearls into Ji, a cloud shoulder with 3500 pearls woven. The picture shows the late Qing cloud shoulder kind.

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Qing Dynasty Warrior armor
Qing Dynasty Qing Dynasty clothing headwear in general, whether it be iron or leather, are painted on the surface. Around helmet cap around each a beam, forehead middle projecting a shadow eyebrow, on which dance engine and cover the bowl with the shape of sake cup helmet disc bowl, intermediate helmet plate erected a plug Ying gun, eagle feathers or otter tail with iron or brass. After hanging azurite and other colored silk protective collar, neck protection and ear protection, embroidered patterns and decorated with copper or iron Nails. Sub clothing and armor armor around skirts. A clothing shoulders Shoulders equipped with protection under axillary Shoulders; the other in the front and back of a piece of metal wear care center mirror, seams another endoscopic breast care abdomen wear a trapezoid, called “front door” . The left waist wear “left block” right not wear gear, wear bow bag reserved for other purposes. Wai Sang divided into left and right two, when worn with a belt tied around his waist. In the middle of the circumference between the two skirts, covered with the same material tiger cover the knee. The picture shows the Qing wear headwear, wear armor warrior recovery plan.

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Eight Banners soldiers armor
Qing Dynasty Qing Dynasty clothing headwear in general, whether it be iron or leather, are painted on the surface. Around helmet cap around each a beam, forehead middle projecting a shadow eyebrow, on which dance engine and cover the bowl with the shape of sake cup helmet disc bowl, intermediate helmet plate erected a plug Ying gun, eagle feathers or otter tail with iron or brass. After hanging azurite and other colored silk protective collar, neck protection and ear protection, embroidered patterns and decorated with copper or iron Nails. Sub clothing and armor armor around skirts. A clothing shoulders Shoulders equipped with protection under axillary Shoulders; the other in the front and back of a piece of metal wear care center mirror, seams another endoscopic breast care abdomen wear a trapezoid, called “front door” . The left waist wear “left block” right not wear gear, wear bow bag reserved for other purposes. Wai Sang divided into left and right two, when worn with a belt tied around his waist. In the middle of the circumference between the two skirts, covered with the same material tiger cover the knee. Eight Banners soldiers armor, made of leather. This time for the big parade wearing clothes, usually covered up. In addition to full Banners of the Qing Dynasty, the Eight Banners of Mongolia in Mongolia located in Han Han Banners set to participate in the real parade of twenty-four flag. The picture shows the Manchu Eight Banners in fashion, from left to right: are yellow, white flag, inlaid red, Zhenglan Banner, Xianghuangqi, white flag, red flag Blue Flag.

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Taiping sleeved dress
Taiping Heavenly Kingdom in the Qing Dynasty Qing Dynasty clothing women’s clothing, although some provisions, but not critical. Women generally do not wear horn hats and summer hat, mostly with satin tie amount winter also wear a hood. The initial uprising, most women wear men’s wear, also wearing seedlings installed. After the capital in Tianjing, due to the improvement of living conditions, more women do not wear men’s clothing, depending on the status of the use of simplified design patterns vary. Ordinary women wore robes made of variously colored satin. In the main round neck style collar was very small, relatively fit waist, hem relatively loose, long clothing knee, left ren. In order to facilitate activities, often laid out next panties, or open on both sides, or open in the middle. The picture shows the Qing Dynasty, when Taiping sleeved women’s wear show in FIG.

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South Sound pipa

South Sound lute popular in southern Fujian and Taiwan area. Playing is one of the main instruments of South Fujian Music plays a commanding role in the band. Chang Xiao tone with South together to play the melody, so light, Fujian, tactful tone, full of rich local characteristics.
Chinese pipa name South Sound
Introduction lute spread through the ages
Pteris lute-shaped head, curved neck, pear-shaped resonator
Phonological percussive playing style Zhong Qing flavor

South Sound pipa0

Edit Profile
Pipa spread through the ages, in the shape pattern, specifications and playing position, etc., have different degrees of change. The South Sound pipa playing folk music is the result of the “Fujian South Music” and the name. Since the Tang Dynasty pipa development of vertical hold, but kept South Fujian Hengbao ancient posture, and thus has “Hengbao pipa,” he said.
South Sound pipa edit
South Pa construction and lute identical. Qin length 93 to 104 cm, head for the Pteris lute-shaped, curved neck, pear-shaped resonance box, but the abdomen are wider. Backplane previously made by hollowing out the use of pine, has multi-purpose hard wood production. Paulownia panel use, locally known as “spring board.” Qin neck must have four positive phase subsidiary, on the panel, central, horizontal stalemate 10 fret, the use of ivory, tortoiseshell or bamboo production, called “syllable.” Both sides of the opening in goods a month out of the eyebrow vents, known as the “spring hole.” Tied string larger panel below. Using four stringed, from low to high are called bus, three-wire, wire and strands. Usually tuning up mostly (d, g, a, d1).
South Pa playing style simple, unique, phonological percussion Zhong Qing flavor. Playing skills mainly bombs, pick, Lian means (quick pick shells), point fingers, tart means, go down, Axel, press tone, armor means (vertical holds the equivalent of “Rings”), and refers to the fast drop means slow down and so on.